Chinese Medicine

Acupuncture, mannequin


SEIRIN mannequin



At the 365 acupuncture points of the interconnections, the energy is accessible with needles and can be influenced in many different ways, so that not only the qi in the interconnections, but also that of the internal organs can be influenced (regulated?). According to the model of Traditional Chinese Medicine, piercing the needles affects the flow of qi (life energy).


Plastic representation of the points
In China, a wooden doll from the Han dynasty (about 200 before to 200 AD), which already provides evidence of practiced acupuncture - a first plastic representation of the puncture points. Aiming for standardization and higher liability in acupuncture, WANG created WEI-YI (987-1067 AD) in 1026 AD. a cast of bronze model of the human body together with the acupuncture points (Martin Adler, textbook natural remedies, Verlag Hippocrates 2010).

Kruger reports on a man-sized clay doll, with sunken acupuncture points, "used for practicing, hollow inside, covered with a thin dermis, and filled with water." When the pupil hit the dots accurately, water flowed out of them "(Michael Krüger, The Great Book of the EAV, Fundamentals and Practical Applications, M & T eBuch-Verlag). The water-filled and wax-covered acupuncture doll for the Punktelokalisation (a test on humans contradicted the then ethical rules).

In 1775 a Chinese merchant brought an acupuncture doll ("Tsoe Bosi") made of bronze to London, but only the detailed description of such a figure in the catalog of the Titsingh Collection and the presentation of this figure in its medical and theoretical context caught the attention of some colleagues (Paul U Innocence, Chinese Medicine, Verlag CH Beck 1997 p.107). In the estate of the Dutch surgeon and sinologist Isaac TITSINGH (1745-1812) was a Japanese anatomical model with recorded meridians and meridian points. At the latest in 1815, parts of this estate were accessible to the physician Jean-Baptiste SARLANDIÈRE (1787-1838). Titsingh's acupuncture doll, with its bizarre ribs and oversized head and hands, is today a showpiece for the Musée d'Histoire de la Médecine in Paris.
Nowadays the acupuncture doll of schwa-medico is widely used (accompanying book by Karin Bushe-CENTMAYER, A.M.I. Verlag, Gießen)

To learn the piercing of the points, one uses a model. For simplicity, the model was introduced by twelve main meridians, each of which is mirrored on both sides of the body in pairs. Eight extra-meridians and a number of so-called extra points complete this model.

Older, 70 cm high clay-colored plastic model of the company SEIRIN, manufacturer of high quality acupuncture needles. Acquired 9/2017 at the port / Innsbruck. Beautiful 24x24 cm wooden base, the patient has put his left foot on a 4 cm high wooden block. Newer models have a plastic base.
The colorful meridians remind me of the route network of the Paris Metro, where qi is represented by the "rames" ...




Hans P. Ogal, Wolfram Stör, Yu-Lin Lian, Seirin Bildatlas der Akupunktur. KVM-Verlag, Köln, Könemann, 1999.


Chinese medicine

Acupuncture, needles (1)



Chinese medicine, in contrast to the Western, hardly developed technical aids. Neither in diagnostics nor in therapeutics found instruments or devices input. An exception is the acupuncture needles, which were developed from lancets. The method is old-fashioned: around 2640 BC, with the discovery of copper, metal needles were used for the first time. Previously, stone needles (quartz fragments) and bones were known. Later, gold and silver needles were added. The needles became finer in the course of their development, their application to the patient less painful - length and caliber changed according to indication and epoch ...
Originally 9 different types were in use:
1. chisel needle 1.6 inches in length,
2. round needle 1.6 inches,
3. Arrowhead Needle 3.5 inches,
4. Lance Tip Needle 1.6 inches,
5. Sword Needle 4.0 inches,
6. Round Tip Needle 1.6 inches,
7. Hair Needle 3.6 inches,
8. Long-needle 7.0 inches,
9. Gross Needle 4.0 inches.

Each of these needles was shaped differently and used differently.
- The handle of the classic needle is made of copper, the tip of steel - the combination of these metals is important to achieve the desired medical effect.
- The copper wire of the handle is twirled, in a clockwise direction - as a sign of the undisturbed relation between man and the environment.
- The handle must end in a ring that is made of copper - the circle as a symbol of the sky. In practice, the ring serves to fix the moxibustion herb (Artemisia vulgaris).

While old acupuncture statues are often shown in museums, an old needle is rarely exhibited. The British Museum shows a lacquered case containing acupuncture needles in Japan [Engelbert KAEMPFER (1651-1716)] estate. There are occasional cases in the trade in which the Chinese doctors kept the silver needles: the simplest containers made of bamboo, but also complex, collapsible fabric lining of silk with woven bat symbols ...


The western influence on the government in Beijing led in 18./19. Century to a repression of traditional medicine in China. In 1929, the TCM under Kuo Men Tan was even banned by the political leadership of the country as "old stuff"! It was not until the late 1950s, when it became clear that the health of the population was no longer secure, that Mao Tse Tung began a period of recollection of his own culture. This recollection gave TCM a new lease of life and even created (abroad!) New forms of acupuncture such as ear, skull and hand acupuncture, which were quickly adopted in China. With the advent of highly infectious diseases (hepatitis B, AIDS) in China around 1970, the time of non-sterilized needles in their romantic cases ended - the needle boxes had become obsolete and have since appeared at the flea markets ...
Presented is a felt-covered tinny (?) Case bought in 2001 on a street market in Beijing. Probably dated to the mid-20th century, it contains a variety of differently crafted needles, mainly Cloud & Dragon type needles with steel points and twisted copper handles.


Link to a company that sells needles:

Chinese Medicine

Acupuncture, needles (2)



Western medicine recognized the usefulness of the method late. It was not until 1815 that it became known in France as SALANDIERE. In 1825, Louis BERLIOZ (1776-1848) and Julien Germain CLOQUET (1790-1883), after 1863 Consul DABRY, propagated the method before the 2nd WK Consul De MORANT.

Chinese doctors and "dropouts" among Western physicians made them popular after the Second World War - in Luxembourg, too, it soon became a good thing to "go to the Chinese". In the "Gynécologie" published by MARCEL and FABRE in Paris in 1947, R. de la FUYE describes the possibilities of using acupuncture in this subject over several pages.

After the polemic in China regarding acupuncture (Mao forbade this "dung heap medicine"), in the West (!) They started to come to the aid of the method and put it on scientific feet. In 1966 Prof. Heine of the University of Witten Herdecke discovers the anatomical correlate of the acupuncture point: in 80% of cases, the acupuncture point corresponds to the point of passage of a bundle of nerves through the outer body fascia. The acupuncture point has a receptor density twice as high as the environment (Kellner, 1966), 3.4-fold increased electrical activity and is embedded in a water-rich connective tissue envelope with Paccini corpuscles. Certain acupuncture points may be assigned to spinal nerves in the sense of cutaneous transmission of information or may be connected to the brachial or lobular plexus. Neurochemical and humoral release of several messengers takes place, i.a. Endorphin.

However, a true enthusiasm for acupuncture did not arise until 1971/72:
In July 1971, the US traveled table tennis team to China. An attending journalist reports on the front page of the NYT of a successful postoperative pain therapy with three acupuncture needles, in his cecal emergency surgery.

Richard Nixon visited the People's Republic of China in 1972 as president; his personal physician observed some acupuncture analgesia operations during this trip (the method had meanwhile been rehabilitated by the Chinese authorities) and confirmed the earlier reports. The focus of the now inflaming Western interest was first on the analgesic effect of acupuncture. Nixon's visit was probably the trigger for today's proliferation of TCM in Europe and the United States. In particular, the beginning of systematic research into the mode of action of acupuncture. The University of Vienna briefly sent a medical delegation to China, and the Chinese for their part came to Vienna to demonstrate their art ...

In Luxembourg, the surgeon Roger HOFFMANN from Esch learned the method in Shanghai in 1977. Since then, almost all anesthesiologists have mastered the method, the one better (Antoine CLOOS, Long TRAN THANH), the others less. General Practitioners (G. VINANDY) have also discovered their interest in TCM ...
A rich selection of literature in our bookstores addresses interested laymen.
Presented are two modern disposable needles, with a plastic handle. They are as easy to manipulate as metal handles and are also more hygienic, as they are easier to clean during the manufacturing process. Different colors indicate the needle strength as with injection cannulas. The plastic handle, as well as the coating of the needle with silicone or silicone oil) but has a decisive disadvantage for "orthodox" acupuncturists: he isolates the therapist from his patient, preventing the free flow of energy between the two opponents! In addition a link /hwato_akupunkturnadelwn.html

Chinesische Medicine

Diagnostic doll


An important element in the examination of the patient in China is the feeling of the pulse. The doctor first felt on the right wrist, then on the left wrist.

The patient only had to stretch her arm through the closed bed curtains so that the doctor could detect the pulse symptoms - the examination of the body became more sensitive, especially in patients.
The Western-influenced doctor, the examination of the female patient is a matter of course, the Intimsphaere inclusive - on the shame, he is usually magnificent. Unlike the situation in China, where it used to be a good thing that a woman never showed herself to a man, the doctor was no exception. Ladies used small statuettes to show the doctor the place of the discomfort - upper-class ladies had their own figurines that they could send to a doctor through a messenger. For simpler patients, the doctor brought his own doll.

"The carvings were used in China from the 1600s until as late as the 1940s" (Dr. William M. Strait, 1970).

The figurines always show women, always in the same pose, with their left arm raised and their hair pinned up, always naked, except for the feet, which are either not shown or clothed. Most figurines are made of porcelain and ivory. The figures were taken over in the early 18th century in European medicine, now no longer to the use of the patient, but to support the teaching operation: around 1700, Stephan ZICK (1639-1715) made in Nuremberg anatomical "pupae" made of ivory, u.a. with the portrayal of pregnant women.

Exhibit: 11 cm wooden statuette.
A beautiful collection is found at




Bause GS., Antique Chinese diagnostic dolls, in: Anesthesiology. 2010 Mar;112(3):513.

Dittrick H., Chinese medicine dolls, in: Bull Hist Med. 1952 Sep-Oct;26(5):422-9.

Chinese Medicine

Doctor (1)

Postal card, about 1920 

Related to Chinese medicine is the TJM, Traditional Japanese Medicine, in which a god of healing occurs.

In the oldest work on history and mythology, the Kojiki, and the chronicle Nihon Shoki, which was written a little later, a deity Okuninushi (also Ōnamuchi or Ōmononushi) appears, who, together with the deity Sukunabikona no Kami, heals the people and protects them against dangerous animals with a defensive magic. Fleeing to the underworld, Ōkuninushi meets Susanoo's daughter Suseri-bime, whom he takes as his wife. Susanoo is not impressed by his new son-in-law and assigns him three tasks that Ōkuninushi copes with thanks to the help of his wife and a rat family. Inkuninushi steals the Sword of Life, arrows and bows of life, and the celestial zither of heaven and flees with Suseri-bime on his back. Susanoo awakens, pursues Ōkuninushi and tells him to kill his brothers and become god Ōkuninushi ("Great Ruler of the Land"). He thus gives him a power of command.


Ōkuninushi's adventures are described in great detail, especially in Kojiki, while the Nihon shoki mentions briefly that he is using sukunabikona no kami, a kind of meditating god, to heal humanity of disease and protect it from dangerous animals by means of defensive magic. Both deities are worshiped in numerous shrines of Japan; Among other things, there is the Omiwa Shrine in present-day Nara Prefecture.

Chinese Medicine

Doctor (2) with his Kuli

French postcard, Staatsbad VICHY, around 1910. 


"The head is shorn with the men except for a small part at the back of the head, where the hair is carefully cared for and braided into a pigtail." "The stronger and longer the braid is, the more proud the owner is on it, thus barking false hair and black A plait often reaches as far as the ankle of the foot, but it is knocked around the neck during work, but it is lowered on entry into a room, for it would be against the decency and the modesty of appearing with wrapped pigtails "(Ida Pfeiffer, A Woman's Ride Around the World, Volume 2, p.19).


"The Han-Chinese men were forced to wear the typical Manchurian plait to demonstrate submission to the Qing rule and to make a visual distinction to the Manchu impossible." Of course, men wore braids and it was even considered noble and sophisticated, and it was not until the nineteenth-century crisis in the Qing state that the Qing government was increasingly stylized as a Manchurian alien and braided by Han Chinese nationalists It was one of the first measures of the revolution of 1911 to abolish the braids.


Reports from the 19th century describe how Chinese students cut their braids on their way to Europe in Singapore and bought a false black silk braid when they returned to a stopover "(Wikipedia).

Chinese Medicine

Doctor (3) preparing a mixture

Postal card, about 1920 

Traditional Japanese medicine is rooted in Chinese medicine, which was probably introduced to Japan around the 5th century AD. The basics were the Chinese classics, but later they took an independent path in Japan, by always seeking the exchange with other, especially Western medical systems. Like TCM, it is based on the pillars of acupuncture, phytotherapy and massage.

In the picture, the Chinese doctor prepares a mixture - not the pharmacist!

Typical of this recording is the respect with which the Jesuit missionaries met the Far Eastern traditions: they collected all the "curiosities" and brought them to Europe, where they later found their way into the state museums ...

Die traditionelle japanische Medizin wurzelt in der chinesischen Medizin, die vermutlich etwa seit dem 5. nachchristlichen Jahrhundert nach Japan eingeführt wurde. Grundlagen waren die chinesischen Klassiker, später schlug man in Japan aber einen eigenständigen Weg ein, indem sie stets auch den Austausch mit anderen, vor allem westlichen Medizinsystemen suchte. Ebenso wie die TCM ruht sie auf den Grundpfeilern von Akupunktur, Phytotherapie und Massage.

Auf dem Bild bereitet der chinesische Arzt ein Gemisch vor - nicht der Apotheker!

Typisch an dieser Aufnahme ist der Respekt, mit dem die jesuitischen Missionare den fernöstlichen Traditionen begegneten: sie sammelten alle "Kuriositäten", und brachten sie nach Europa mit, wo sie später in den staatlichem Museen Aufnahme fanden ...

Chinese Medicine

Doctor's rattle, so called "Tiger sting"



The ancient Chinese hiking doctors drew attention to themselves with a rattle, the so-called Tigerstachel. Mai Sun wrote the following in 1890:

The Catching of the Song Li CIKOU from the Song Period [around the 13th century, when itinerant doctors are first mentioned in the medical literature.] CIKOU what an itinerant doctor. "Once he got a tiger in his mouth and asked help from Li CIKOU Those who carry on their art carry this implement as their symbol and call it "Tiger's sting" (Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph. D., Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Ore.).

"Once upon a time, Sun Simiao and his students went to the mountains to gather medicinal herbs, and a giant-faced tiger stood in front of them, Sun Simiao looking fearlessly into the beast's mouth and seeing a donkey bone wedged in his throat His doctor rattled his mouth into the mouth of the tiger and told his student to reach out and pull out the donkey's bone, leaving the tiger in his vicinity, carrying the medicinal herbs and allowing Sun Simiao to rest on him. "
After this legendary tiger, henceforth, the ring was named. The Academy of Chinese Medicine in Beijing has a sting that is almost identical to ours, as well as a second, which is decorated with the so-called "eight trigrams" (Huichun, Chinese Medicine, Prestel Verlag 1995 p.74).


S. Dharmananda, Li Shizhen, Internet 2002.

Chines medicine

Jivaka, the inventor of Thai massage



Jivaka Kumar Bhacca (5th century BC), who lived in northern India more than 2,500 years ago, is known as the Buddha's counselor and personal physician, as well as the doctor of the then ruling King of Madagha, Bimbisara. He is considered the founder of the Thai yoga massage "Nuad". In ways that are not well known, Jivakas knowledge in 3./4. Century AD to Thailand, where it was initially passed on exclusively in the temples of Buddhist scholars.

The biography of Jivaka is reminiscent of that of Moses: Prince Abaya, son of King Bimisara, watched a swarm of crows circling a filthy bundle in a ditch. He got off his horse and found a child close to death. Investigations revealed that a courtesan had "disposed of" her newborn at the roadside. The prince took the child home and adopted it - the future doctor ...

The roots of Thai yoga bodywork (thail .: Nuad, translates as "healing touch") are therefore in Indian Yoga and Ayurveda (Ayurveda = knowledge of life). From here, the teachings of Ayurvedic doctors were brought to the area of ​​today's northern Thailand. While Nuad is no longer practiced in India today, it has become an integral part of Thai culture. In the western world, the Thai massage was first heard in the late 17th century. The French ambassador to the court of Siam, Simon de la Loubère (1642-1729), reported in 1691:

"Quand quelqu'un est malade à Siam, il commence par se faire ramollir tout le corps par quelqu'un qui soit entendu en cela, qui monte sur le corps du malade, & foule aux piés. L'on dit mêmes que les femmes great font ainsi fouler aux piés par un enfant, afin d'accoucher avec moins de peine "(Du Royaume de Siam, vol. 1, A Paris, Chez la Veuve de Jean-Baptiste Coignard and Jean-Baptiste Coignard, MDCXCI, 1691, p. 242). Translated to English, "When someone in Siam is sick, he starts having his whole body worked on by someone who is trained in it." He climbs onto the patient's body and punctures it with his feet after, they let a child trample on to ease their birth. "

In contrast to Western massage, the Thai masseur is not interested in anatomical conditions, but rather in the flow of energy circulating in the 10 Sen lines (Chinese influences?). The massage is characterized by targeted pressure with thumbs, hands, arms, elbows, feet and knees on the acupressure points, the energy lines of the body intense, with z.T. brute force, are processed. A special feature of the Thai yoga massage are also the targeted stretching, which give this massage a special liveliness and vitality. The massager remains clothed.

We present a 9.5 cm high statuette of the doctor Jivaka Kumar Bhacca from a bronze-colored foam modeled after the life-size statue in the temple "Wat Sala Loi" in the northeast of the city Nakhon Ratchasima (?) - a souvenir of my son Thomas from a holiday trip to Thailand, as he risked a day trip to neighboring Burma ...

Chinese medicine

Medical litterature

China 8


To the form
Formally, older books are striking because of the unfamiliar nature of the binding. As a "Japanese bond" is called a typical Hindu way to staple books. The paper is only printed on one side, forms a long band, which is then folded and sewn. This special binding method spread from China to East Asia.

To the age
"Chinese acupuncture, medical books 270 years old", "Chinese acupuncture medical books more than 100 years old" ... a few years more or less does not matter in China! These are probably books from the early 20th century ... 12 books for 30 euros, because each "book" can have no real value, therefore can not be older than a few years. Even China would not squander its folk goods.

To content
All books deal with acupuncture. Since I do not understand iota from the text, I have to look at the pictures that show acupuncture needles and acupuncture points on the body and hands.

Chinese medicine

Mortar for für Lotus seeds

 Asiatischer Mörser



In the conservative oriented Chinese medicine with its thousands of vegetable and animal preparations, mortars still play a special role. "Metal pork mortars, such as those used by European pharmacy for many centuries, are unknown in China, while North China brass mortars are multifarious and can also have a decoration, such as grooves," writes the sinologist and director of the Institute f. History of Medicine at the University of Munich, Paul U. Innocence.


The roots of the plant. Leaves and fruits are processed into a tea that has an abortive effect and promotes the expulsion of the placenta (see the chapter on pharmacy).

The seeds contained in the fruit capsule, called "Egyptian beans" in the West, are processed into medicines, lotus seeds strengthen the spleen and kidneys, and stop diarrhea. They support the Ying (Essence) and stop bleeding, semen loss and vaginal discharge.

The oldest seed ever germinated comes from the Indian lotus flower (Nelumbo nucifera) and was 1300 years old. In the seed of the lotus plant is an enzyme that can delay the aging process. Furthermore, substances with a cardiac-strengthening effect can be obtained from the seeds.

Presented is a 18 kg heavy cast-iron mortar (diameter 13.5 cm) purchased in Beijing, with a particularly beautiful décor: a lotus flower and sliced ​​fruit capsule.


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Chinese Medicine

Vials (1)

China zusammen


Among the few possible exhibits of Chinese medicine are the vessels in which the pharmacists deliver their medicines. However, most medicines have not been dispensed in such elaborate and precious containers, but, as is still the case today, in paper bags.

We present
- A 19th century vessel with a lettering in the middle of a floral pattern. Width 1.8 cm x height 3.5 cm x thickness 1.2 cm
- a dispensing vessel from the late 19th resp. early 20th century (epoch Qing), in the classical amphora form. On the front and back of the pharmacy name, place and content are painted. Porcelain, underglaze blue on white background. Width 3 cm x height 5.5 cm x thickness 1.8 cm.

Origin: Anhui province / China, in the northwest of the city Bozhou (Haozhou), birthplace of the doctor Hua-tuo (145-208), father of Chinese surgery (this art was subsequently neglected!) And inventor of the "mafeisan "said anesthetic powder whose composition was lost (hashish, opium?); Nowadays, the city of millions is known as the center of trade in raw materials for traditional Chinese medicine - a public market, in addition to thousands of herbs, offers whole sacks of dried human placentas, fly lizards, seahorses, snakes and spiders. Now: Cléry St André, France.