Bleeding, white (2)



In 1891 Luxembourg exported 62 kg of Spanish flies (!) (Memorial n ° 71 of 30.12.1892). Where these critters came from is, however, a mystery to me.

In the past, ointments were relatively commonly used to deliver kankheiten through the skin. Here is a report on the use of train paving at the beginning of the 20th century:
"Le médicament miracle qui se trouvait dans toutes les maisons c'était bien la toile souveraine, appelée aussi toile vésicante et topique dans une autre variété." Au village on l'appelait toile de curé parce que c'est un prêtre des environs qui l Les médecins connaissaient cette toile, mais ils fermaient les yeux devant certains résultats probants. L'application était simple: après avoir légèrement chauffé le côté enduit d'une matière dont je ne connais plus la Composition, pour la faire adhérer, on the appliquait sur l'endroit douloureux ou infecté, souvenir épaisse et jaunâtre, parfois purulente, la sérosité expulsée entraînait les toxines de l'organisme qui était ainsi d'autant mieux désintoxiqué que l'élimination avait été plus abondante, le soulagement obtenu étant lui-même d'autant plus grande personnellement, au cours de mon adolescence j'ai obtenu la guérison d'une gros infection in staphylococcus Notre inventeur n'était pas apprécié des pharmaciens et la production des être légalement suspendue. La composition du médicament était bien connue, corn il fallait le mettre en œuvre de bonne façon. The crois savoir qu'une certaine personne a appliqué cette toile sur un his gercé alors qu'elle allitait encore son enfant ... d'où complications bien prévisibles. Toile souveraine oui mais pas universelle et bonne à tout. En attendant, comme on dit, elle a été souvent efficace, d'un prix très abordable en ces temps sans sécurité sociale ni assurance "

A popular product in the 19th century: the so-called Drouot's plaster, a mild blistering plaster prepared with cantharides, specified in 1818 by the pharmacist Théophile DROUOT from Nancy:
"En 1818, M. Drouot a publié une autre formule plus satisfaisante; all compose d'un mélange de teinture de garou et de teinture de cantharides, faites toutes deux avec l'éther acétique, on fait dissoudre dans le mélange un peu de colophane, et on l'applique avec un pinceau sur un taffetas gommé, the bonté de la formule a été constatée par les rédacteurs du Journal de pharmacie, aurait à lui reprocher seulement l'emploi de l'éther acétique, qui ne donne pas of the résultats plus avantageux que l'ether sulfurique, et qui coûte beaucoup plus cher J'en dirai autant de la formule qui consiste à dissoudre de la colophane dans l'éther acétique, et à mélanger de la poudre fine à cette teinture; outre, ce taffetas a un coup d'œil désagréable, qu'il doit à la poudre de cantharides qui est disséminée sur sa surface La Formule proposée par M. Deschamps est la suivante:
Cantharides en poudre ........ 10 onces.
Euphorbe en poudre ............ 1 once.
Alcool à 35 .............................. 2 livres.
Introducing les matières dans un balloon, chauffez au bain-marie de manière à faire bouillir l'alcool, laissez refroidir; décantez, filtrez, - ajoutez sur le marc ... "

An original package "Toile vésicante" by the pharmacist Charles BUCHET & Cie. 7 rue de Jouy Paris. Cylinder-shaped cardboard box with tin lid and bottom, height 210 mm, diameter 55 mm. Origin of the object: Chatel sur Moselle in France.

Charles BUCHET (1843-1933).
"Charles Buchet, pharmacist, worked nearly fifty years in" the Pharmacie centrale de France, "which was named Director and President for 35 years." In 1913, he conceived the project of a French society of pharmacy history, which was achieved with the help of E.-H. Guitard and P. Dorveauz, he was the president of this Society from 1920 to 1928. He really was the father of the SHP.


Bleeding, white (Mouches de Milan)

Mouches de Milan 2


"The fly is actually a winged beetle with a greenish-metallic color, and its potency-enhancing effects have long been known." In antiquity, the beetles were crushed into a powder that was taken or mixed into a meal by a man Emperor Nero have mixed the drug into the food of the (then current) imperial family to be able to use the orgasms so ignited later against their participants.

In fact, Cantharidin, an ingredient of the Spanish fly, is a potent poison. Among other things, it irritates the urinary tract, which can cause an erection. However, sexual desire does not increase it. But when the libido is there, it can give men an extended love play. Or a painful chronic erection, liver poisoning, circulatory collapse and kidney failure. Unfortunately, the Spanish fly is slightly overdosed. Already 30 milligrams are deadly. Cantharidin easily follows the "little death" orgasm with the great death.


In any case, the effect of the insect was well known when the pharmacist Pierre Jean Robiquet (1780-1840) from Paris isolated the substance Cantharidin exactly 200 years ago from the animal and examined. Robiquet's ambition was sparked by the mishap that befell the Napoleonic troops in Egypt. They fed on certain frogs, which in turn consumed Spanish flies and stored their poison without side effects. Actually, Cantharidin serves the insect just as protection against predators. But as often happens in the evolutionary arms race, some robbers adapt to the weapons of their prey "(Wolfgang W. Merkel, in: Welt, 13.8.2010 |.



Blood collector by UNGER



  We present an Ernst UNGER (1875-1938) blood collector,, as it was in usen our clinics from 1930 to 1950.

The equipment comes from the lumber room of the building of the Luxembourg Red Cross, opened in 1936, now "Maternité Charlotte" in Luxembourg ...

Was this blood subsequently infused into a patient? This is supported by the transfusion technique given by Prof. DENECKE in 1936: "500 ml of blood is taken from the donor, collected sterile and defibrinated by hitting it with the sterile glass rod during the removal, the blood is then sifted through sterile gauze and destroyed 5 hours in a refrigerator, transferring with glass irrigator with rubber tube and glass attachment, cannula with tube piece The irrigator is filled to one quarter with physical NaCl or grape solution The cannula is inserted into the vein of the recipient and The disconnected piece of tubing is then connected to the glass batch, allowing some NaCl solution to flow into the vein alone and add the blood.

- H. Kramer (interior department of the city hospital Osnabrueck, Germany), experience with the phlebotomy device Hirudo, in: Journal of Molecular Medicine, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg Volume 13, Number 8 / February, the 1934th
"THERAPEUTIC NOTE: EXPERIENCES WITH THE ADMINISTRATIVE DEVICE HIRUDO By Dr. H. KRAMER From the Department of Internal Affairs of the City Hospital Osnabrück (Director: Prof. Dr. BOGENDORFER) and company Kirchner & Wilhelm has been one of Dr. UNGER The principle of the apparatus is that a venous puncture needle with the help of a pressure hose, a graduated glass container can be connected, which can be evacuated by means of a connected suction pump, similar to the Potain puncture apparatus Without the need to actuate a lever, while on the one hand the liquid to be dotted flows into the glass container, air is sucked out of the container through a second opening by means of the pump and so a certain negative pressure is constantly maintained a protective metal shell enclosed by a piece of glass in the closed leading tube can monitor the flow of liquid and read through a slot in the metal shell, the amount of drained puncture fluid. The apparatus was used for venipunctures and pleural functions. It was pleasant to feel that the fluid flowed out in a continuous stream and that the amount of fluid gained was invisible to the patient. Especially this Eigensehaft the invisible puncture fluid is in blood letting, etc. of particular advantage in sensitive patients. Another advantage is that a bleeding can be done without any soiling of the laundry, documents, etc. In one of our outpatient bloodlettings, it was very easy for a person to undergo surgery if the cuff of the blood pressure apparatus was put on for stowage. Precisely because of this, the blood-letting device is in our opinion especially suitable for the practitioner, who is not always supported by sufficient helpers. The cleaning of the apparatus is done by sucking cold water, afterwards the whole apparatus except the lockable pump can boil off. From various quarters is stated as unpleasant and disadvantageous that after the puncture at the first pump stroke in the system, a certain overpressure would arise, which could possibly cause a leakage of air into the vein. We have through investigations and also by asking questions with the manufacturer and Dr. Ing. Convince UNGER that there is never any danger. Once the cannula has been connected to the apparatus under water, it will never be possible to force an air bubble out of the cannula, so that any overpressure in the system will be virtually invisible. In addition, even in the congested vein that has a hydrostatic pressure of at least 20-30 cm, in dots, so it would have to have an uplifting dear friend overpressure prevailing in the apparatus to let in air occur in a congested vein. The equipment is an actual enrichment of the instrumentation of the doctor and the purchase can be highly recommended ".
So UNGER was still alive in 1934, so it can not be about Franz UNGER (1800-1870), but only about Ernst UNGER, who died in an accident in 1939 ...

- Ernst Unger, Unterschiede in der Ausscheidung der Gruppenmerkmale. Indikationen und Technik der Bluttransfusion.

- Ernst Unger, Fehler und Gefahren bei der Bluttransfusion. Med. Welt 1933, Nr 17.


Bowel suture


 Device for the bowel suturing done by De MARTEL and WOLFSON, about 1950 


Cautery (1)

Brenneisen, um 1800 

One of the oldest problems of the surgeons is haemostasis. In diffuse bleeding, astringent plants (oak bark, strawberry root etc) or minerals (alum) were probably put on in the early phase. In heavy bleeding, the spurting vessel was compressed. Already 3000 BC The Egyptians knew the cautery ... Apart from such practical measures, the use of magic played a role until the 19th century: "A saying from the Bible is quietly spoken to and crosses the bleeding spot three times with the forefinger" (Georg Friedrich Most, Encyclopaedia of Folk Medicine, 1843 p. 90).
In the 10th century, the Arabs began to use the cautery in psychiatric therapy: epilepsy, melancholy and headache (focal points on the skull).

Most surgeons have always had burnt irons in their instruments - a variety of forms were in use - and thus burned out hemorrhoids, bleeding wounds, amputation stumps, etc. Recall the reluctance Ambroise PARE felt to burn the soldiers - replacing the red-hot iron with oil and adding yolk.
Somewhat surprising is the burning sensation of toothache (foci in the oral cavity), pleurisy, dropsy (foci of the body).

In many cases was also cut with these irons (Italy of the Middle Ages).
In many parts of Germany, the insane were burned with red-hot iron, a so-called "brand seal" imposed on them. One hoped, in this way, to burn out the disease demon, or, as others thought, to create a hole through which one could chase it out. For the indications of cauterization see also the article PAQUELIN (1)
The set presented here comes from the flea market in Metz-Grigy, it was in an ensemble of human medical, especially gynecological instruments - this to the suspicion that they could be veterinary instruments. Nine iron, which could be clicked into a change handle: while one iron was in use, the next one was already brought to red heat in the coal fire. The name of the manufacturer is engraved in two of the iron: BOURDEAUX. "Bourdeaux l'ainé" was an instrument maker in Montpellier.

As the Englishman Percivall POTT (1714-1788) - the same, after whom the "morbus POTT", i. vertebral tuberculosis is named - when this renounced the iron, this was the impetus to the general abandonment of the method. But now came the thermo and Elektrokoagulationsgeräte in fashion and the Ätzstifte.
The Frenchman called the round iron tips "boutons de feu". In folklore, the method lives on, e.g. in the saying: "C'est un cautère sur une jamb de de bois", i. you're burning a wooden leg to say that this medicine is not going to do anything!




Walter von Brunn: Zur Geschichte der Blutstillung, Die medizinische Welt 9 (1935), S. 107f.

E. F. Heeger: Zur Geschichte der Blutstillung im Altertum und Mittelalter, Wiener klinische Wochenschrift (1910), S. 1006-1008 und 1079-1080.

Michael Sachs, Geschichte der operativen Chirurgie, Bd. I: Historische Entwicklung chirurgischer Operationen, Kaden Verlag Heidelberg, 2000.

Michael Schlathölter, Geschichte der Theorie und Praxis der Wundheilung und Wundbehandlung unter besonderer Berücksichtigung des 19. und 20. Jahrhunderts, Münster 2005


Cautery (2)

Cautery, about 1930 



More modern than the "Paquelin" were from the early 20th century on devices in which the platinum thread was electrically heated. Galvanocaustic was invented in Finland by Gustav Samuel CRUSELL (1818-1858) from Tammela and further developed to therapeutic maturity - in 1848 he founded the "Institute électrolytique" in St. Petersburg.

The surgeon Victor von BRUNS (1812-1883) teaching in Tübingen from 1843 onwards took up the method and brought it to a high perfection.



From the estate of the doctor Paul HETTO (1895-1979), who worked in Diekirch, comes the assortment of probes of a (lost) device of the Parisian company DRAPIER.
The rollers and plates (left in the foreground) were used for (internal) electrotherapy, in which the current applied directly to the patient.
The filaments of the probes (in the middle of the picture and at the top) served for the monopolar electro-coagulation of small haemorrhages, which were difficult to access surgically.
Neutral plate electrodes on the right in the foreground.


Cautery (3a) by PAQUELIN



Formerly, firing or annealing iron heated in the flame was used, followed by PAQUELIN's (1836-1905) heather, in which a different shaped hollow body of platinum heated to annealing and then by blowing a mixture of air and petrol vapor, the the glowing platinum surface burned, was obtained glowing.

Claude-André PAQUELIN * 30.12.1836 in Vaucluse - Avignon. He first studied pharmaceutics, then switched to human medicine. The fact that he applied for a patent on his burner was chalked to him by many colleagues (Scientific American, v. 45 (ns) no 9, p 137-8, 27 August 1881). He died in 1905.

He wrote:
C.A. Paquelin and Léopold Jolly, Etudes de biologie: théories nouvelles, Paris, chez A. Delahaye, 1875, 166 p. 16 cm.
Steets in Paris and Avignon bear his name.

"Le thermocautère fut créé en 1875 par le docteur Paquelin et perfectionné en 1891. It is known as" the plateau de s'échauffer en condensates certain gaz ou vapeurs, en particulier les carbures volatils de l'essence minérale. " (Larousse universel and deux volumes, 1922).

"Handier and more versatile are the galvanokaustischen Brennapparate usable" (Meyers Konversationslexikon 1909).

"La méme instrument, sous d'autres noms" (pyrophoric, pyrography, etc.) A par la suite été utilisé dans l'industrie, notamment dans l'industrie de la métallurgie, La poétesse de renom, Madame Fawzi Malhasti lui a consacré plusieurs sonnets. "


The use of the device was rather cumbersome. The board had to be preheated over the open flame for one minute before the gasoline vapors could blow through the hose. Nevertheless, the "Paquelin" was widely distributed (introduced in Cuba in 1876) and remained worldwide until after WW2. on the market. It was the standard scabbard - scabbing "wild meat", burning bites to reduce the risk of rabies. It coagulated at low temperature and cut at high temperature. Heinrich MARTIUS (gynecological operation theory, 1960) also scabbed wound surfaces with the "Paquelin" (p. 200) and severed the intestinal loops with this device (p. 407). Apparently, the word "Paquelin" had become the epitome of the Kauther, and was still used there, as one had long used electrical Kauter.

There was electrocoagulation since 1930: "At the clinic of the famous Viennese surgeon and university professor of Hohenegg, a man with severe jaundice underwent abdominal surgery, notably the knife for the first time instead of the knife, the electric point burner of an ordinary diathermy apparatus This method relies on the property of electric sparking that it destroys the tissues of the body.When the patient's body is placed on a lead pad connected to one pole of the electrical circuit, one leads the pointed burner, the one on the other pole is connected to the body site to be operated on, so the skip sparks the tissue and cut can be performed exactly as with a surgical knife.However, such an operation has not only the advantage that it runs almost bloodless, but the wounds cure according to agreeing Care also significantly easier and faster. In addition, purulent wound infections are completely excluded "(Luxemburger Wort, January 9, 1930).

Presented is a burner with "boîte gainerie", which comes from Barentin in Haute-Normandie, (northwest of Rouen) in France. A similar device, this time with blast balloon, comes from the Midi-Pyrénées region.


Cautery (3b) by PAQUELIN

Original textbook Paquelin 



Burners are generally devices for the destruction of body tissues by incandescent heat. This causes, applied to surfaces volatile, different degrees of burns, which were brought about in the elderly medicine for the derivation of inflammation by the moxa. However, the incandescent heat also caused rapid hemostasis through the formation of a stuck scab, safe destruction of malignant tumors or infected tissue, and allowed bloodless tissue to be cut bloodlessly. Therefore, bleeding sites of the nasal mucosa, the inner surface of the uterus (!) Burned by burners, wounded by poisonous snakes or wounded dogs wound burned, blood-rich tissues, especially in gynecological operations and liver and lung operations, with the burning apparatus.

In 1876, the French physician Claude André PAQUELIN (1836-1905) published a thermo-cautery with a platinum tip internally filled with very finely dispersed platinum moor, which, after being heated once, glowed, and through a gas-air mixture (supplied by a blower) (or other flammable vapors) could be kept glowing.

*The discovery of the catalytic effect of platinum moor goes back to the pharmacist Johann Wolfgang DÖBEREINER (1780-1849). In 1816 he had succeeded in the oxidation of alcohol to acetic acid with the help of platinum moor. A few years later, he succeeded in igniting an oxyhydrogen gas mixture under the influence of platinum sponge one of the most important discoveries of early catalytic chemistry. It led to the invention of Döbereinerschen platinum lighter, which became a coveted commercial object.

Textbook by Paquelin, purchased in 2005 from a dealer in Juan-Les-Pins.


Cautery (4) by SCHECH

Kautergriff n. SCHECH

Philipp SCHECH (1845-1905) was a professor at the University of Munich and significantly involved in the development of the local ENT department.

Schech used a slender flat or pointed burner for the galvanic ceramics of benign tumors, which he placed coldly on the nodule, and only briefly made the burner glow. This was usually followed by a severe environmental reaction with redness and swelling that often led to hoarseness, sometimes lasting several weeks. Schech used the galvanocoaustics mainly in the throat and nose, less frequently in the larynx. It was used to treat circumscribed hyperplasia, connective tissue proliferation, pachydermia, granulation, neoplasm, tuberculous ulcer and polyp residues.

SCHECH itself had developed a universal handle for galvano-acoustics, which was made by various mechanics in Tübingen, Munich and Erlangen and could be purchased. The technically complicated handle was designed to accommodate not only the fixed, but also the adjustable loop-shaped approaches.
Origin: flea market at the "port" / Innsbruck 8/2018.



 He wrote

- Die   Galvanokaustik   in   der   Laryngochirurgie.   Ärztl. Intelligenz-blatt 24 (1877) 443-444

- Die Krankheiten des Kehlkopfes und der Luftröhre mit Einschluss der Laryngoskopie und local-therapeutischen Technik für praktische Aerzte, 1897.


Cautery (5) electric



This is what the handset looked like before there were EU directives ...

Upper picture: on the right the power supply, on the left the two poles for the glow wire.

Bottom row: on, off: Arrest for continuous operation by pushing the button forward.
Chromed part, stamped: A. GAIFFE à Paris.

Ladislas GAÏFFE (* 16.1.1832 in Nancy, died in Paris on 9.4.1887) called himself Adolphe G., after the then well-known businessman, philosopher and writer Adolphe GAÏFFE (1830-1903) - and signed his (from 1856) in The "Entreprises de Construction Electriques Adolphe Gaiffe" creations made in Paris according to "A.Gaiffe". Under the direction of the son, the business continued to run until the early 20th century under the name "A.Gaiffe"!
For the biography of both Gaiffe see the link:

Company Catalogs
Gaiffe L.A., Notices sur les appareils électro-médicaux, Catalog de 1874.
Gaiffe L.A., Matériel électro-thérapeutique, Catalog. Chez Charraire and fils à Sceaux. 1885th

A noteworthy collection of electro-therapy equipment, i.a. from the workshops Gaiffe, see:


Cautery (6) electric



Electrocauteries are indispensable for cutting and coagulating in modern OR.

Presented is a manual switch from the company BOWO, which was scrapped in 2007. In the medallion an eyelet (company picture) for the removal of small growths.

Founded in 1977 by Messrs. Günter Bosner (chemical engineer) from Gomaringen and Prof. Kurt WALTER (astronomer, retired from the University in 1972) from Tübingen, BOWA-electronic GmbH has become one since 1987 due to its innovative strength and know-how successful provider in the booming field of RF medicine developed.

Today, BOWA employs 400 people, which generate a turnover of over 30 million euros. The exclusive high-quality products made in Germany enjoy an excellent reputation worldwide.

As a supplier of the complete range of HF surgical devices and accessories, BOWA is an internationally successful player in the demanding field of electromedicine: BOWA products are in use around the globe.
Head Office:
BOWA-electronic GmbH & Co. KG
Heinrich-Hertz-Strasse 4-10
D-72810 Gomaringen (10 km south of Tübingen)
Subsidiaries in Poland and the USA.


Cautery (7), transformator



   The transformer presented here consists of two current transformers:
- the left, from which the cautery was fed.
- The right, the power for the illumination of medical endoscopes (headlamp, cystoscope, etc.) supplied.

Félix Maloine made surgical instruments around 1912 (Catalog d'Instruments de chirurgie 1912)
Not to be confused with A. Maloine, who published medical books in Paris around 1880/1905 ...


The presented device comes from the estate of the 1913 Clerf established doctor Guillaume KOENER. Since his anticlerical attitude had denied him access to the hospital of the Franciscan nuns in Clervaux, KOENER had to make use of this and similar devices in his private practice ...

A similar box can be found in the catalog "Guillot, Fernand - Catalog illustré d'instruments de chirurgie, d'appareils de médecine et d'orthopédie, Paris: s.n. [Ivry: Impr. Of Ets Hyperparaf, 1934" from 1934