Factory hospital (1) Eich



The metallurgical plant of the company Metz & Co in Eich had a hospital ward, which was soon no longer sufficient. 1871/72, a spacious house was built on the Alzette - on the slag heaps, which had been heaped up here: the Hospital St. Joseph (picture, middle part), which was put into operation in 1873.


With the supervision of the women's association of the parish Weimerskirch was entrusted, who let run the house of sisters


- 1873 by sisters of Christian doctrine


- from 1874 of Borromäerinnen.


On 15.3.1891 Mrs. Albertine TESCH widow of Norbert Metz bought the hospital - in the hope to be able to continue the house as a foundation and under the name "Fondation Metz" and thus to prepare her deceased husband a posthumous present. According to the statutes, the house should always have 10 beds at the disposal of the sick and wounded workers of the company Metz & Co.


As of October 1, 1892, the Norbert Metz Foundation belonged to the Grand Ducal State, which had the clinic enlarged several times:
- In 1877, the right side wing was added and here the sewing school was housed. Through this extension, rooms for an operating room and 4 additional hospital rooms were obtained on the first floor of the old building.


- In 1882 the middle wing leading to the Alzette was listed. At the same time, the left side wing was attached, which gave the house a more harmonious appearance.


- In 1888 the hospital chapel was built and consecrated in September 1889.


- In 1960, a three-storey extension with 72 beds was completed, with an architectural feature: a roof terrace. On 16.7.1960 the church consecration took place.


- On 4.6.1983 a renovated part of the clinic was inaugurated. The modernization and enlargement work had taken about 6 years.


First aid (1), aerial forces

Luftschutz Verbandkasten 2


The Luxembourg air defense had already prepared the population for the coming war.


The air-raid shelters of the Reichsluftschutzbund (RLB), founded in 1933, were to prepare the civilian population in the National Socialist state by practicing protective measures for the aerial war. Since 1935, the population was required by law to participate in the training events of the RLB. The standard equipment for air raid shelters included, among other things, a first-aid kit produced by various manufacturers in accordance with the requirements of the RLB.


In May 1940 Hitler Germany occupied the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. As the likelihood of Allied air raids on Luxembourg widened, people were advised to help themselves:

All residents who have ordered a first aid kit from the local organization of the German Red Cross can now pick up this first aid kit from the pharmacy in Aulner, where the order has been placed every household and replaces the medicine chest completely.It is indispensable for the first aid in bad luck and especially for the provision of air-raid protection "(Escher Tageblatt, 6.2.1942).



Metal case 35 x 19 x 10.5 cm with one-sided handle. In the lid extensive list of contents and the corresponding application; stamped "1943". In particular, the box contained dressing and ointment material in the event of an attack with phosphorus incendiary bombs.


not to be confused with the "small LS medicine chest"




First aid (2)




Military first aid box from 1941, marked (W for Wehrmacht, L for Luftwaffe) and the number 56867.


Kettensaege 1
Kettensaege 2
Kettensaege 3


Gigli saw, done by JEFFRAY




After the obstetrician Jean-René SIGAULT (1740-?) Had in 1777 successfully separates the cartilaginous symphysis a patient in order to expand the basin, and De CAMBON had repeated the procedure three times 1778/80, their successors set about not the cartilage, but Sawing the bone - believing that bone heals better than cartilage - and lateral bone resection represents a lower risk of injury to the urethra than the medial section of the symphysiotomy. In 1785, the Scottish surgeon and obstetrician John AITKEN Les deux Extrémités de gave (d. 1790) in his obstetrical work "Principles of Midwifery or puerperal Medicine", a band saw of small toothed platelets to "série de chaînons denticulés et articulée au moyen de goupilles. The instrument sont fixées à un poignée d'ivoire ", with which he could sever the pelvic bones (next to the symphysis). Yes, AITKEN, probably in a fit of mental fogging ("délire" quoted OSIANDER *), wanted to completely excise the bony X, which connects both halves of the pelvis, in order to facilitate future births as well ...

* An allusion to the fact that AITKEN committed suicide in 1790 by severing an arteria femoralis in the presence of two helpless colleagues.

His compatriot James JEFFRAY (1759-1848) claimed to be the actual inventor of the chainsaw, but only in 1790 had a saw of its own design. The JEFFRAY chainsaw, like that of AITKEN, consisted of individual links connected by cylinder joints.
"Dans quelques cas de nécrose ou de caries partial à la main ou au pied, par exemple aux os you métacarpe et du métatarse, il est important d'all séparer la partie malade, au milieu des tissus voisins que la maladie n'a pas encore atteints; mais il est évident que les scies dont nous avons parlé Jusqu'ici seraient d'un emploi tout-à-fait impossible C'est dans le but de répondre à cette difficulté que Jeffray a eu le premier de l'idée. la scie à chainette, dont on ne saurait trop l'louer dans utilité maintes circonstances difficiles. Cette scie consiste en une sorte de chaîne de montre, dont les maillons sont armés de l'un de leurs dents sur overboard, et son ensemble représente une série de petites scies Articulees les unes à la suite des autres. Chaque extrémité de cet instrument est munie d'un petit some transversal, à l'aide duquel il peut être mis en mouvement. Comme on le devine facilement, il est d'une flexibilité extrême "(Dictionnaire de médecine et de surgery pratique, Tome 14, p. 555, Paris 1835).

Karl Kasper SIEBOLD (1736-1807) performed on February 4, 1778, the first pelvic perforation with bone perforation in Germany.

The presented saw has a chain length of 30 cm and handles made of metal (the chromation is mostly exfoliated), so it should have been used after 1900, as older models had handles made of ivory or ebony. Origin of the object: Luzy-sur-Marne in the Champagne-Ardenne region.

Nota: In 1900, the wire saw by GIGLI, which in 1897 was worth a dozen for 3 Reichsmark, was always cheaper (see Gigli saw 2).


In 1830 Bernhard HEINE (1800-1846), a native of the Black Forest and practicing medicine in Würzburg, used the technical principle of the chainsaw, but moved the incisors to the outer edge and ran the inner edge of the chain, which he assembled into an endless chain, over a rail , He sawed bones with this "osteotome". Today it will be felled by tree giants ... which brings us back to the Black Forest!




- Skippen M, Kirkup J, Maxton RM, McDonald SW., The chain saw, a Scottish invention, in: Scott Med J. 2004 May;49(2):72-5.

- Johnson, Robert Scott JD; Sippo, Dorothy A. MD; Swan, Kenneth G. MD, The Flexible Chain Saw During the American Civil War, in: Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care: August 2010 - Volume 69, S. 455-458

- John Kirkup, John Aitken's chain saw, in: J Med Biogr.2009; 17:80

- Mark Skippen, John Kirkup, Ronald M. Maxton, Stuart W. McDonald, The Chain Saw – A Scottish Invention, in: SMJ 2004 49(2): 57-60


Gigli saw (2)

GIGLI-Säge 2


Leonardo GIGLI (1863-1908), at that time assistant at the Breslau clinic under FRITSCH and MIKULICZ, gave the [later named after him] saw in 1894, a wire saw with double u. in itself or quadruple braided steel wire. It was used for soft-tissue-sparing bone resection (osteotomy) by sawing "from the inside to the outside" (for example in skull trepanning).


Leonardo GIGLI still holds an important place in neurosurgical instrumentation Born in Florence in 1863, Gigli was forced to leave Italy soon after getting married He graduated in 1892, moved to Wroclaw, where he was successful with FRITSCH and MIKULICZ during this successful and rewarding period, Gigli's proposed the lateralized pubiotomy (Gigli's operation In 1894, at Professor OBALINSKI's suggestion, he has successfully tested a modified saw type with a whalebone guide to the preparation of osteoplastic cranial flaps he was held abroad, GIGLI's goals were systematically belittled in Italy, where he never qualified for a university teaching position. He died in 1908, at age 44. Although Gigli's operation has only recently begun, the favorable features of his wire make it a safe and efficient tool in the hands of twentieth-century neurosurgeons worldwide. "(Brunori A, Bruni P, Greco R, Giuffre R, Chiappetta F., celebrating the centennial (1894-1994):


Leonardo Gigli and his wire saw J Neurosurg 1995 Jun, 82 (6): 1086-90) GIGLI earned a lot abroad He was not even admitted to private lectures in Florence until he was appointed to the post of Prof. BOSSI in 1907 (Zbl.Gyn 1907, nr.51, p. 1577). The GIGLI saw - as in the days of AITKEN - for the separation of the pubic rami, but was largely replaced by the Caesarean section after the Second World War.


Gloves, box

Transparent box, around 1920 



One of today's obvious aseptic measures when dealing with patients is the days of sterile gloves.

The great American surgeon William Stewart HALSTED (1852-1922) introduced the method in Baltimore in 1889 at the newly opened John Hopkins' Hospital when his fiancé, the nurse's sister, developed a hypersensitivity to phenol, then common hand sanitizer. (Halsted and Caroline Hampton (1861-1922), by the way, married in June 1890). HALSTED had probably adopted the idea from the pathologists of the house:


Actually, 132 years previously in 1767, Obstetric gloves made from sheep intestines were used for vaginal exams and deliveries by a German physician, JJ Walbaum. and Dr. William WELCH at Hopkins may have used gloves for autopsies. "(Robert S. Lathan, Rubber gloves redux, Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent.). 2011 Oct; 24 (4): 324).


So the rubber gloves came from "good old Europe" and were first worn by the physician and animal groomer Johann Julius WALBAUM (1724-1799) from Wolfenbüttel. In Baltimore, they were initially a purely private event. They became public subjects only in 1896, when she asked the 1870 Assistant to HALSTED at the John Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore set surgeon Joseph Colt BLOODGOOD (1867-1935) first for the entire team of surgeons, then for all surgeons in the United States.


To the exhibit

Presented is a plastic box for storing rubber gloves owned by the physician Paul HETTO, who settled in 1923 in Diekirch. In order to establish and maintain the sterility, a (black) DESNOS container is incorporated in both the base and the (identical) lid, reminiscent of the urologist-used stopper with which the catheter container was sealed (see the chapter on urology).





A goniometer (angle measuring instrument) for the final measurement of healed fractures with a degree arc is presented. Material: Steel, Dimensions: W: 5 cm, L: 19 cm. Manufacturer: Aesculap in Tuttlingen, 2nd third 20th century.


Nota: the same instrument is in the possession of the medical and pharmaceutical history collection of the University of Kiel, inventory number: 2005-041-029.
Our instrument comes from the estate of the doctor Roger GLAESENER, who worked as a consultant for various health insurance companies (municipal officials - railroad cash registers) ...


Hemorrhoidal cooler by ARZBERGER

Artzberger 1876


    Hemorrhoids torment people, who walk from chair to chair, but also other humans, especially horse users, which are born in the saddle and die there: In the Caucasus, famous for his riding standing people, serve the people of self-made ice candles that they push in the very residue. In the 1870s, the ARZberger derived from Vienna developed a device for cooling. In the meeting of K.K. Society of the Aerzte made of 1 February 1867. Johann Freiherr v. Dumenserre (1815-1880) The "mastdarmolic" (Viennese medicine. Newspaper 1867 No. 6, p. 46 and No. 12, in the latter note is called the name). In the Viennese medicine. Weekly write 1867 S.200 If the name Arzberger is listed, it is here that it is said that Professor "Arnsburg" has applied the apparatus at Haemorrhoidal bleeding to itself with advantage. "


The ATZBERGER cooler.

This apparatus consists of a metal pin with a pear-shaped end and is provided with a dimension and drain pipes associated with rubber hoses with a higher reservoir and a socket of sockets" (Hugo ziessen, climatotherapy, in: H. Weber; Balneotherapy, from O. Lightweight manual of the general therapy, publisher Vogel 1881 p.239). "Next to [Wilhelm] Winternternz, [Gustav] Gärtner (1855-1921) and [Arno] Krüche (1854-1926) and Atzberger, which developed the" ice catastlasma "[Meange: Arzberger, who had developed the mastdard cooler in the 1870s for the treatment of local prorest forms and the calorization of the prostate, especially [max] Matthes (1865-1930), which was in the extreme extension of the cold therapy has only partially only for individual organs" (Hubertus Averbeck, from the cold water to physical therapy. European University of Appliances Bremen 2012 p.252).


Friedrich Arzberger (1833-1905), 1861, the Wizen-based assistant to the Montanisch Education Foretrich Arzberger in Leoben was the Controlor at the mountain, cabin and hammer administration Jenbach. 1866: "SE. K.K. Majesty The Professor of the Mountain and Hut Machine Trains at the Prabramer Bergakademie Julius Knitter v. Hauer to the professor of the same subject at the mountain academy in Leoben and the Bikedwerk Verweder in Vordernberg Friedrich Arzberger to the professor of the same items in the mountain academy in Pribram Allergädsten is settleed (Z. 44815, DDO. October 10, 1866). Professor of the Technical University in Vienna, beforehand Brunn. In the 1870s he developed the mastdar, the head, prostate, the heart-cooler, etc. - a technician, no doctor." Friedrich Arzberger is the inventor of the mast-arm sullen Mastdarm cooler (Olive) and the well-headed coatings in various forms for the cooling of individual members of the body used devices. (See all in the realcyclopedia of the Ges. Pharmacy, 2. AB. VDI.IVI S.192, the name is incorrectly specified as an atzerperie mastdar coat system "(Hans Heger, Pharma-Tissue Post Bd.42 1909 p.89). Paul Richter, Historical contributions to the Urology, 2. The" Arzberger's coolant ", magazine for Urology, Band VII 1913. (


The same principle is based on some of the special regions designed to be the most older for the form of the release, the earth's first-to-beat is a coat of the mastdar. The Wasternternit is the same to the type of a coat cannula, the construction of the charted, the Winterternit-Techbekücher, the design drawn is clearly. The one is a kind of catheter Village of the double Courant, in which the ahead of the castle of a double-auge is a clear category of the category of the castle, the award of the cast the water-folding. The award of the cast the water-pierced ou-auge COUNTANT, in which the pipe of the air is located in the water, the award of the cast the water-pierced in the water, the award of the cast the water-pierced in the water, the award of the cast the water-pierced in the end of the pipe, which is the one-way of the water-pierced ice of the double-coupled, the a water-cast a water-race water, is the one-way of the casting of water, the alert of the cast of the water is a dwell Courant, in which the pipe of the water is located in the end of the carroth, which is the a through-pipe of the water, the alert of the water-pierced water is emptied at the top of the tube, and the open-end of the pipe surrounded by the pipe, the auxiliary of the pipe surrounded by the pipe, the auxiliary of the pipe surrounded by the pipe. By regulating the amount and influence, the fish bubble or the rubberity mobility tied across the tab can be tensioned as desired. This achieves a very exact concern to the wall of the rectum. A similar apparatus is specified by the Kag for the vagina "(Max Matthes, Tehrkuch de Klinian hydrotherapy for students and aerials. Verlag Gustav Fischer, Jena 1900). Wilhelm Winternternz (1834-1917), was a doctor and had a custody of cold water gels in cold emerging. Indications first indication were bleeding Haemorrhoids. Arzberger had tested his apparatus in this indication. It also with a high prostatischer's casting the cherish, the prosether, especially for urethritis posterior acuta, prostatis and spermatocystitis Acuta" (Th. Cohn, P. Frangheim, H. Gebele, G.B. Gruber, Th. Heynemann, A. Lewin, E. Meyer, F. Necker, H.G. Pleschner, F. Oekecker, P. Schneider, R. Siebeck, F. Suter, Speicher Uriezie, Springer, F. Suter, Speicherial Urology, Springer, Berlin 1928 S.402). Herkunft: Minsk, Weißrussland. Ebay-Kauf 1/2018


Hemorrhoidal tweezer by SMITH



Treating bleeding haemorrhoids for a long time was not a matter of course, emptying the body of decayed blood. As late as the eighteenth century this was due to a number of morbid conditions: "The flowing golden vein sometimes keeps its proper time, and appears every few months, in which case it is always to be regarded as a salutary emptying, which in no way must be clogged in the podagra and other gouty diseases, in shortness of breath, and in hypochondriacal incidents salutary "(Onomatologia Medico-Practica: Encyklopädisches Handbuch für practicing physicians, Nuremberg 1784 p.1034).

In the nineteenth century, the attitude of the doctors changed, and accordingly a number of clamps were developed, with which one could grasp internal haemorrhoidal nodules with regard to their ligature or cauterization: in particular, the one that Bernard v. Chr. LANGENBECK (1810-1887) at the Berlin Charité and the one developed by Henry SMITH (1823-1894) at London's Kings College. The former was a pair of wing-tongs for grasping single pulled-out hemorrhoids. The latter clamp is presented here.


In 1876, in the 4th edition of his book "The Surgery of the Rectum," Henry SMITH (1823-1894) pinched. In the journal Lancet of April 20, 1878 (quoted in Charles B. Ball, The rectum and anus, Philadelphia 1887 p.270) he published the results thus generated.

Still in the catalog of the Waarenhauses Berlin from 1910 we find the "Hämorrhoidalknotenzange after Smith" with her ivory shoe.

For a long time I did not know why the foot of the clamp was covered with a (dark brown) horn until I found the explanation p.161 in the catalog of John Weiss & Sons (London / England): "with ivory guards for protection during cauterization" , Ivory isolates the surrounding tissue against the heat of the metal rod - not against electric currents, because at the time of SMITH it was mainly cauterized with the apparatus n. PAQUELIN, but not with electricity.
European brands had an ivory shoe - the colonies send their regards. In the US, where ivory was not so easy to use, the foot was made of horn - cattle were abundant in the endless prairies. Our Ocala / Florida imported tweezer (ebay) has no manufacturer's engraving except for a hallmark "43" (presumably a catalog number) and wears horn shoes (which have been nibbled in places by bugs). Horn but almost as well isolated as ivory ...
The problem of heat development during cauterization found other solutions. Thus, the surgeon at the Hôtel-Dieu in Paris Léon-Clément VOILLEMIER (1809-1878), who linearly cauterized the anal mucosa in 1873 with two knife-shaped annealing irons, coated the surroundings of the operating field with collodium "to ward off the radiant heat" (Wiener med. Wochenschrift 1873 P. 973)


Kidney (1)

Two gynecologic kidneys, about 1980


Pus ponds (French cuvettes à pus), known since the 19th century, were evidently nothing more than a further development of medieval barber bowls. Most of them were kidney-shaped (French cuvettes réniformes, in jargon "haricots"). In 1900 they were available in hard rubber, in glass, glazed porcelain, papier maché, brass. The most common in the doctor's office were bowls of white enamelled iron, later of inox. Sheet steel.

In addition to the kidney shape, there were the heart shape (French forme de coeur), the cloverleaf (French forme de trèfle), the trough shape (French forme de terrine) etc.


It is interesting to note that no surgeon has immortalized himself with a bowl of his invention - apparently nobody wanted his name to be associated with pus or filth ...


Kidney (2)

Bizarr kidney, about 1940 



The model presented here deviates from the classic "kidney shells" by the abnormality of its form. Here, the surgeon was really spoiled for choice.


The kidney pelvis had originally been an "abscess shell" that was kept under the bump before the surgeon cut that pus. See the French name of the bowl "cuvette à pus". Since the shell was pressed against the body, it was obvious to give it a body shape. The body is nowhere straight, so no square shell. In order to make the shells particularly versatile, a bizarre form was developed in addition to the kidney shape, which had 3 to 4 different strong concavities - as the example presented here.


The make (stamp on the bottom) is unknown to me.


A word about enameling: even the ancient Egyptians knew the e-mail and thus made art and jewelry items. The Romans and Gauls knew the technique and used it to decorate their fibulae.
The main component of today's enamels is a light-bodied, lead-rich, tin oxide-opaque glass, which is either used as white enamel, or colored by metal oxides such as cobalt oxide (blue) or copper oxide (green).
When enameling metals, the mass does not come to complete flow. Rather, it assumes only a dough-like state, in which the powder applied to the metal enamel united to form a coherent coating that has quite the look when cooling, as if it had been completely liquid.


Krankentransportwagen, 1914/18

Fischer Militär-Kutsche, Vorkriegszeit, 30er Jahre 

"Besonders bezeichnet man mit Ambulanz die leicht bewegliche Einrichtung des Kriegssanitätswesens für die erste Hilfe, zuerst im 15. Jahrhundert von Isabella der Katholischen eingerichtet, von Richelieu im italienischen Kriege 1630 organisiert, später auch bei anderen Heeren eingeführt. In der deutschen Armee wird der Ausdruck Ambulanz nicht mehr benutzt.
In Frankreich versteht man unter "ambulances" alle im Bereich des kämpfenden Heeres vorhandenen Einrichtungen zur Pflege und zum Transport der Verwundeten und Kranken, speziell die zuerst 1792 i, Rheinfeldzug von LARREY eingeführten Krankentransportwagen"
(Meyers Konversationslexikon 1909, 1. Band).

Ambulanzen gehörten also im Wesentlichen ins Ressort der Armeen. Doch auch im zivilen Alltag betrieben Organisationen wie die Freiwilligen Rettungsgesellschaften und das Rote Kreuz Krankentransporte.

Die Verwundeten wurden durch mehr oder weniger ausgebildetes Personal auf Krankentragen vom Schlachtfeld zu nahegelegenen Verbandsplätzen und Verwundetensammelstellen gebracht (Anmerkung: Kranke und Verwundete werden auf ‚Tragen’ transportiert, nur Tote liegen auf ‚Bahren’). Hier fand eine Erstversorgung durch die Regimentsärzte statt, bis sie in Ambulanzwagen auf einer bestimmten Route mit Halteplätzen zur Aufnahme weiterer Verwundeter zum Feldlazarett gebracht wurden.
Sanitäter begleiteten diese Krankentransporte nicht - bis zur Ankunft in einem Lazarett waren die Patienten sich selber überlassen.

Die zunächst verwendeten 2-rädrigen Krankenwagen erwiesen sich als ungeeignet, da die schaukelnden Bewegungen zusätzlich Schmerzen verursachten, so daß bald 4-rädrige Wagen eingeführt wurden. Sobald die Verwundeten in den Feldlazaretten transportfähig waren, brachte man sie zur weiteren Behandlung in die Reservelazarette in den Städten ...

In Deutschland produzierten drei große Zentren Blechspielzeug:
- der Raum Nürnberg/Fürth/Zirndorf mit über hundert Betrieben.
- der Raum Berlin/Brandenburg mit den Firmen Lehman, Greppert und Kelch.
- der Raum Württemberg mit der Firma Märklin .
Während des 1. Weltkrieges brach die Spielzeugindustrie zusammen und erreichte nach Kriegsende in vielen Fällen nicht mehr die Vorkriegsqualität. Ein Beispiel dafür ist die Abwendung vom Verlöten der Spielzeuge und die Verbreitung der Blechzungen (Verzapfung). Nach dem wirtschaftlichen Aufschwung in den 20er Jahren führte die Weltwirtschaftskrise in den 30er Jahren zu einem Exodus vieler Hersteller: namhafte Firmen wie Issmayer, Bing und Hess schlossen ihre Fabrikationsanlagen.

Die Kinder spielten die Szenen nach, die ihnen der Vater bei seiner Rückkehr aus dem Krieg erzählte. Heute ist das "Penny"-Blechspielzeug von einst ein gesuchtes Sammelobjekt. Man beachte die detailgetreue Ausarbeitung der Pferde und der Kutscher und die sorgfältige Verzapfung - entstanden in der Nürnberger Spielzeugfabrik Georg Fischer (von 1908 bis 1959), Aufdruck "Germany" auf der rechten Flanke beider Pferde. Das gleiche Gespann (selten?) gab es übrigens auch ohne die Roten Kreuze auf der Plane ...